Neo-Babylonian Bibliography: Abstracts (First part)
– «The Dowry Clause in Marriage Documents from the First Millenium B.C. », dans : D. Charpin & F. Joannès (éd.), La circulation des biens, des personnes et des idées dans le Proche-Orient ancien. Actes de la 38e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Paris, 8-10 juillet 1991), Paris, 1992 : 311-320.
→ This article examines the way in which the Babylonian notary of the first millennium recorded dowry in the marriage documents. The author is particularly interesting for the contracts TBER 93-94 (see Joannès 1984 and 1990), CT 49 165 and CT 49 193. K. Abraham concludes that Aramaic and Neo-Babylonian marriage deeds have several features in common, and TBER 93-94 has parallels, which occur in the marriage deeds from Egypt, be it the Demotic, the Aramaic or the Greek ones.
– « West Semitics and Judeans Brides in Cuneiform Sources from the 6thcentury B.C.E. New Evidence from a Marriage Contractfrom Al-Yahudu », AfO 51 2005-2006 : 198-219
→ The tablet published is a contract for the marriage of fNanaya-kānat (See this article for the copy, transliteration and translation of the contract). It is dated of the reign of Cyrus and was edited in the place Āl-Yahudu, near Borsippa. The contract mentions a lot of persons, who have West-Semitic names and the article ends with a study of the onomasticon.
– Talk 10 November 10th 2011 « Does the Al Yahūdu Marriage Contract Reflect Jewish or Babylonian Law ?»
→ During this talk, K.Abraham presents Al Yahūdu tablets which depict the daily life of a rural community of Judean exiles and their descendants in Babylonia after their captivity. The contract studied is dated of the 5th year of Cyrus, when a woman named Nanaya-kanat married in Al Yahudu and the document is written with unusual formulary with Old Babylonian expressions (see also Abraham, 2005-2006).
Women of Babylon. Gender and Representation in Mesopotamia, Routledge, 2004 (CR de R. Harris dans JAOS 123/1, p. 199-200)
→ The monography is presented as the one of the firsts studies of women through the themes of sex and gender and conceptions of body in Mesopotamian art, and redefines the figure of Ishtar. The author however proposes a very useful overview of feminist theory and their relations with history, art history and archaeology.
“Ba’u-asitu and Kaššaya, Daughters of Nebuchadnezzar II”, Or 67, 1998, p. 173-201
→ This article deals with the daughters of king Nebuchadnezzar II. Both of these women appear of documents come from the city of Uruk, where they seem to dwell.
“Egalité et inégalité des sexes en matière d’atteinte aux mœurs dans le Proche-Orient ancien”, WO 11, 1980
→ This article deals with the moral offenses in Ancient Near East. In Assyria, for example, the author points, men and women seem to be equal for the question of adultery. Guilty men or women are treated with the same rigor or receive the same indulgence. But inequality appears with the question of incest. After comparisons with Hammurabi’s Code, Torah and Assyrian laws, it results that it exists four interdictions of marriage: mother and son, aunt and nephew, mother-in-law and son-in-law, step-mother and step-son.
“Zwei Frauengeschichten aus den späten Jahren von Nebukadnezar II. Probleme der Interpretation”, RAI 47, 2001
→ The two documents studied are dated of the second part of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. The first ROMCT II, 2 (see G. Mc Ewan for edition) mentions the city Qadesh and is a purchase-contract of a female slave. The second document (see edition in RAI 47, p. 115) deals with a girl who becomes a širku for the Eanna Tempel in 570-569.
DHORME P-E ET THUREAU-DANGIN F.,
« La fille de Nabonide », RA 11, 1914, p.105-117
→ This article presents a copy, transcription and translation of the text, entitled “The daughter of Nabonid” (AO 6444). In fact, Bel-šal¸i-Nannar, daughter of the king of Babylon was educated to be a priestess of the god Sîn in Ur.
“Some Neo-Babylonian Women”, in. J.-M. Durand (éd.), La femme dans le Proche-Orient antique, RAI 33, Paris, 1987, p.75-80.
→ The question of position of women during the Neo-Babylonian period is the theme of this article. It presents six women of different social categories (slave, temple prostitute, wet nurse, widow and married woman) and their role in society through legal and economic texts.
– “Kaššaia, fille de Nabuchodonosor II”, RA 74, 1980, p. 183-184
→ This paper is a complement work of Weisberg’s study about royal women. Kaššaya is the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar II and also the wife of Neriglissar. However, she is probably the oldest kid of the king. Her name appears in the text HE. 477 (dated of Nbk. 31). Wool, which will be used to make a garment, is taken to her personal goods.
– « Contrats de mariage d’époque récente », RA 78, 1984, p.71-81.
→ It is the first study of the texts TBER 93-94 and TBER 78a, which come from Susa. They are written in late akkadian, but legal clauses are atypical for this period. The most important thing is, that persons who appear in theses contracts have Egyptian names. So the texts enable to think that an Egyptian community resides in Susa.
– « Un cas de remariage d’époque néo-babylonienne », in. J.-M. Durand (éd.), La femme dans le Proche-Orient antique. Actes de la 33e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Paris, 7-10 juillet 1986), Paris, 1987, 91-96.
→ This article presents the archive of the family Ea-iluta-bani, who dwell in the city of Borsippa during the 7th to 5th century (687-487). The author studies particularly the generation of years 551-522. There were actually 6 marriages but concern just 8 persons, so remarriage take part in the same family (see the very useful genealogical tree at the end of the article). Endogamy is a very important system because of the transfer of property and goods.
– « Textes babyloniens de Suse d’époque achéménide », dans : F. Vallat (éd.), Contribution à l’histoire de l’Iran. Mélanges offerts à Jean Perrot, Paris, 1990, p.173-180.
→ The article presents two fragments of two contracts, Sb 9385 and Sb 9078 (see copy, transcription and translation in article). This study is a complementary work of RA 78. All the texts come from Susa and are dated of the reign of Artaxerxes. Sb 9385 is a marriage-contract and some persons have Egyptian names too. They can be members of the Egyptian community of Susa, dwelt in this place since the reign of Cambyses.
– « Inventaire d’un cabaret », Nabu 1992, note 64
→ The texts Camb 330 and Camb 331, written in Hursagkalamma are valuable sources of information about a tavern under the reign of Cambyses. The tavern is operated by a slave-woman, Ishunnatu, but financed by a member of the Egibi family, Itti-Marduk-bala¸u.
– « Inventaire d’un cabaret (suite) »,Nabu 1992, note 89
→ This article is a complement of Nabu 1992, note 64. The texts OECT 10, 239 proves a parallel about contents, place and person for the question of the tavern. There the person’s name is Ishunnatu too but is probably a homonym.
– « Amours contrariés », Nabu 1994, note 72
→ Cyr 311-312 and Cyr 307 deal with a special case: when the family of the young girl does not want her marriage or when legal laws are not respected.
– « Place et rôle des femmes dans le personnel des grands organismes néo-babyloniens », Persika 12, 2008, p. 465-480.
→ In this article, F. Joannès is interested in the question of the role of women in the great organisms of Babylonia in the first millennium. The feminine manpower was employed for textiles activities, milling, and agriculture.
“Everyday Life of Women According to First Millenium Omen Apodoses”, RAI 47, 2001
→ The investigation examines the ordinary women who appear in omens. The author identifies four general themes (marriage, childbirth, death and adultery) of favorable and unfavorable omens.
– “Le “Lit” de Šamaš et le Rituel du Mariage à l’Ebabbar”, ASJ 7, 1985, p. 129-137
→The author is interested in the question of the process of Šamaš’s divine marriage-ceremony and particularly of the question of his bed. The article is based on economic documents of the reigns of Nabonid and Cambyses.
– “Les rituels du mariage divin dans les documents accadiens”, ASJ 10, 1988, p. 95-128
→ This article is focused on the divine marriages of several divinities: Nabû and Tašmetu, Šamaš and Aja, Marduk and ¥arpanitum, Anu and Antu, and discusses among other things the term hašadu and his signification.
“Une femme gardienne de son mari”, ZA 3, 1888, p. 17-22
→ This very unusual text of the second year of Neriglissar deals with three persons: Panu-Nabû-¸emi, his wife Burasu and his brother Elqanua. There are two requirements in this text: Burasu is the watch of her husband and she has to deliver him to her brother-in-law. J. Oppert proposes that Panu-Nabû-¸emi is perhaps mad and is under the responsibility of his wife during the absence of his brother.
REVILLOUT E. ET V.,
“Contrats de mariage et d’adoption dans l’Egypte et dans la Chaldée”, PSBA 9, 1887, p. 167-177
→ The authors examine adoption-contracts in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Through comparisons between a contract of their “personal collection” (a tablet of Sippar) and Straßmaier 8, they specifically examine the structure of this kind of Mesopotamian contracts, which is very similar of marriage-contracts.
– “Women in Transition and the bīt mār bāni”, RA 82, 1988, p. 131-138.
→ Abstract in RA 82 “Orphaned, divorced, or widowed women in the Neo-Babylonian period were deprived of the legal, social and economic security they had enjoyed as daughters or wives. This paper discusses one option open to such women: they could seek the socially sanctioned protection of the bīt mār banî. The evidence is insufficient to conclude whether the bīt mār banî (a previously unrecognized phenomenon) refers to a physical building, or to the legal and social protection given by a responsible member of the community to a woman without the protection normally provided by her immediate family”.
– Babylonian Marriage Agreements 7th-3rd Centuries B.C., AOAT 222, 1989
→ This monography is divided in two parts. In the first part, M. Roth presents the type of documents she is studying. Most of the 44 marriage documents are “dialogue documents” and just six present the formulation ina hud libbišu. The author questions the new status of wife, the question of her dowry, children and the clauses which can cancel the marriage. In the second part, we can find transcriptions and translations of the 44 marriage agreements between the reigns of Kandalu and Antiochus III.
– “Die Frauen der Familie Egibi”, AfO 42/43, 1995/1996
→ The archive of the Egibi family depict the history of the business activities of the Egibi during five generations, since Nebuchadnezzar to Xerxes. C. Wunsch is interested in this article in the women of the Egibi family, who appear in dowry-contract and exchange of possessions.
– Urkunden zum Ehe-, Vermögens- und Erbrecht, aus verschiedenen neubabylonischen Archiven, Dresden, 2003
→ In this monography, the author presents 47 unpublished texts which deal with marriage, dowry, testaments and divorce between the reigns of Nabopolassar to Darius I. The women belong to different neo-babylonian families, for example, Basiya, URÙ.DÚ.MANSUM, Egibi, of Babylon, Sippar or Borsippa.
– “The Šangu-Ninurta Archive” AOAT 330, 2005
→ This article deals with a archive of a business and well-to-do Babylonian family between reign of Nebuchadnezzar II to the reign of Xerxes. The author however presents the marriage links between the Šangu-Ninurta, Bel-apla-u¤ur and E¸iru families and draws a useful prosopography of the women of the familiy during 3 generations, in which we can see that most of the goods are transmitted to the next generation only in the female line via dowries.