Fiches de lecture (bibliogr. néo-babylonienne)

Neo-Babylonian Bibliography: Abstracts (First part)




–           «The Dowry Clause in Marriage Documents from the First Millenium B.C. », dans : D. Charpin & F. Joannès (éd.), La circulation des biens, des personnes et des idées dans le Proche-Orient ancien. Actes de la 38e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Paris, 8-10 juillet 1991), Paris, 1992 : 311-320.

→ This article examines the way in which the Babylonian notary of the first millennium recorded dowry in the marriage documents. The author is particularly interesting for the contracts TBER 93-94 (see Joannès 1984 and 1990), CT 49 165 and CT 49 193. K. Abraham concludes that Aramaic and Neo-Babylonian marriage deeds have several features in common, and TBER 93-94 has parallels, which occur in the marriage deeds from Egypt, be it the Demotic, the Aramaic or the Greek ones.


–        « West Semitics and Judeans Brides in Cuneiform Sources from the 6thcentury B.C.E. New Evidence from a Marriage Contractfrom Al-Yahudu », AfO 51  2005-2006 : 198-219

→ The tablet published is a contract for the marriage of fNanaya-kānat (See this article for the copy, transliteration and translation of the contract). It is dated of the reign of Cyrus and was edited in the place Āl-Yahudu, near Borsippa. The contract mentions a lot of persons, who have West-Semitic names and the article ends with a study of the onomasticon.


–        Talk 10 November 10th 2011 « Does the Al Yahūdu Marriage Contract Reflect Jewish or Babylonian Law ?»

→ During this talk, K.Abraham presents Al Yahūdu tablets which depict the daily life of a rural community of Judean exiles and their descendants in Babylonia after their captivity. The contract studied is dated of the 5th year of Cyrus, when a woman named Nanaya-kanat married in Al Yahudu and the document is written with unusual formulary with Old Babylonian expressions (see also Abraham, 2005-2006).



Women of Babylon. Gender and Representation in Mesopotamia, Routledge, 2004 (CR de R. Harris dans JAOS 123/1, p. 199-200)

→ The monography is presented as the one of the firsts studies of women through the themes of sex and gender and conceptions of body in Mesopotamian art, and redefines the figure of Ishtar. The author however proposes a very useful overview of feminist theory and their relations with history, art history and archaeology.



“Ba’u-asitu and Kaššaya, Daughters of Nebuchadnezzar II”, Or 67, 1998, p. 173-201

→ This article deals with the daughters of king Nebuchadnezzar II. Both of these women appear of documents come from the city of Uruk, where they seem to dwell.



“Egalité et inégalité des sexes en matière d’atteinte aux mœurs dans le Proche-Orient ancien”, WO 11, 1980

→ This article deals with the moral offenses in Ancient Near East. In Assyria, for example, the author points, men and women seem to be equal for the question of adultery. Guilty men or women are treated with the same rigor or receive the same indulgence. But inequality appears with the question of incest. After comparisons with Hammurabi’s Code, Torah and Assyrian laws, it results that it exists four interdictions of marriage: mother and son, aunt and nephew, mother-in-law and son-in-law, step-mother and step-son.



“Zwei Frauengeschichten aus den späten Jahren von Nebukadnezar II. Probleme der Interpretation”, RAI 47, 2001

→ The two documents studied are dated of the second part of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. The first ROMCT II, 2 (see G. Mc Ewan for edition) mentions the city Qadesh and is a purchase-contract of a female slave. The second document (see edition in RAI 47, p. 115) deals with a girl who becomes a širku for the Eanna Tempel in 570-569.



« La fille de Nabonide », RA 11, 1914, p.105-117

→ This article presents a copy, transcription and translation of the text, entitled “The daughter of Nabonid” (AO 6444). In fact, Bel-šal¸i-Nannar, daughter of the king of Babylon was educated to be a priestess of the god Sîn in Ur.



“Some Neo-Babylonian Women”, in. J.-M. Durand (éd.), La femme dans le Proche-Orient antique, RAI 33, Paris, 1987, p.75-80.

→ The question of position of women during the Neo-Babylonian period is the theme of this article. It presents six women of different social categories (slave, temple prostitute, wet nurse, widow and married woman) and their role in society through legal and economic texts.



– “Kaššaia, fille de Nabuchodonosor II”, RA 74, 1980, p. 183-184

→ This paper is a complement work of Weisberg’s study about royal women. Kaššaya is the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar II and also the wife of Neriglissar. However, she is probably the oldest kid of the king. Her name appears in the text HE. 477 (dated of Nbk. 31). Wool, which will be used to make a garment, is taken to her personal goods.


–   « Contrats de mariage d’époque récente », RA 78, 1984, p.71-81.

→ It is the first study of the texts TBER 93-94 and TBER 78a, which come from Susa. They are written in late akkadian, but legal clauses are atypical for this period. The most important thing is, that persons who appear in theses contracts have Egyptian names. So the texts enable to think that an Egyptian community resides in Susa.


–   « Un cas de remariage d’époque néo-babylonienne », in. J.-M. Durand (éd.), La femme dans le Proche-Orient antique. Actes de la 33e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Paris, 7-10 juillet 1986), Paris, 1987, 91-96.

→ This article presents the archive of the family Ea-iluta-bani, who dwell in the city of Borsippa during the 7th to 5th century (687-487). The author studies particularly the generation of years 551-522. There were actually 6 marriages but concern just 8 persons, so remarriage take part in the same family (see the very useful genealogical tree at the end of the article). Endogamy is a very important system because of the transfer of property and goods.


–   « Textes babyloniens de Suse d’époque achéménide », dans : F. Vallat (éd.), Contribution à l’histoire de l’Iran. Mélanges offerts à Jean Perrot, Paris, 1990, p.173-180.

→ The article presents two fragments of two contracts, Sb 9385 and Sb 9078 (see copy, transcription and translation in article). This study is a complementary work of RA 78. All the texts come from Susa and are dated of the reign of Artaxerxes. Sb 9385 is a marriage-contract and some persons have Egyptian names too. They can be members of the Egyptian community of Susa, dwelt in this place since the reign of Cambyses.


–        « Inventaire d’un cabaret », Nabu 1992, note 64

→ The texts Camb 330 and Camb 331, written in Hursagkalamma are valuable sources of information about a tavern under the reign of Cambyses. The tavern is operated by a slave-woman, Ishunnatu, but financed by a member of the Egibi family, Itti-Marduk-bala¸u.


– « Inventaire d’un cabaret (suite) »,Nabu 1992, note 89

→ This article is a complement of Nabu 1992, note 64. The texts OECT 10, 239 proves a parallel about contents, place and person for the question of the tavern. There the person’s name is Ishunnatu too but is probably a homonym.


– « Amours contrariés », Nabu 1994, note 72

→ Cyr 311-312 and Cyr 307 deal with a special case: when the family of the young girl does not want her marriage or when legal laws are not respected.


– « Place et rôle des femmes dans le personnel des grands organismes néo-babyloniens », Persika 12, 2008, p. 465-480.

→ In this article, F. Joannès is interested in the question of the role of women in the great organisms of Babylonia in the first millennium. The feminine manpower was employed for textiles activities, milling, and agriculture.



“Everyday Life of Women According to First Millenium Omen Apodoses”, RAI 47, 2001

→ The investigation examines the ordinary women who appear in omens. The author identifies four general themes (marriage, childbirth, death and adultery) of favorable and unfavorable omens.



– “Le “Lit” de Šamaš et le Rituel du Mariage à l’Ebabbar”, ASJ 7, 1985, p. 129-137

→The author is interested in the question of the process of Šamaš’s divine marriage-ceremony and particularly of the question of his bed. The article is based on economic documents of the reigns of Nabonid and Cambyses.


– “Les rituels du mariage divin dans les documents accadiens”, ASJ 10, 1988, p. 95-128

→ This article is focused on the divine marriages of several divinities: Nabû and Tašmetu, Šamaš and Aja, Marduk and ¥arpanitum, Anu and Antu, and discusses among other things the term hašadu and his signification.



“Une femme gardienne de son mari”, ZA 3, 1888, p. 17-22

→ This very unusual text of the second year of Neriglissar deals with three persons: Panu-Nabû-¸emi, his wife Burasu and his brother Elqanua. There are two requirements in this text: Burasu is the watch of her husband and she has to deliver him to her brother-in-law. J. Oppert proposes that Panu-Nabû-¸emi is perhaps mad and is under the responsibility of his wife during the absence of his brother.



“Contrats de mariage et d’adoption dans l’Egypte et dans la Chaldée”, PSBA 9, 1887, p. 167-177

→ The authors examine adoption-contracts in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Through comparisons between a contract of their “personal collection” (a tablet of Sippar) and Straßmaier 8, they specifically examine the structure of this kind of Mesopotamian contracts, which is very similar of marriage-contracts.



– “Women in Transition and the bīt mār bāni”, RA 82, 1988, p. 131-138.

→ Abstract in RA 82 “Orphaned, divorced, or widowed women in the Neo-Babylonian period were deprived of the legal, social and economic security they had enjoyed as daughters or wives. This paper discusses one option open to such women: they could seek the socially sanctioned protection of the bīt mār banî. The evidence is insufficient to conclude whether the bīt mār banî (a previously unrecognized phenomenon) refers to a physical building, or to the legal and social protection given by a responsible member of the community to a woman without the protection normally provided by her immediate family”.


Babylonian Marriage Agreements 7th-3rd Centuries B.C., AOAT 222, 1989

→ This monography is divided in two parts. In the first part, M. Roth presents the type of documents she is studying. Most of the 44 marriage documents are “dialogue documents” and just six present the formulation ina hud libbišu. The author questions the new status of wife, the question of her dowry, children and the clauses which can cancel the marriage. In the second part, we can find transcriptions and translations of the 44 marriage agreements between the reigns of Kandalu and Antiochus III.



– “Die Frauen der Familie Egibi”, AfO 42/43, 1995/1996

→ The archive of the Egibi family depict the history of the business activities of the Egibi during five generations, since Nebuchadnezzar to Xerxes. C. Wunsch is interested in this article in the women of the Egibi family, who appear in dowry-contract and exchange of possessions.


Urkunden zum Ehe-, Vermögens- und Erbrecht, aus verschiedenen neubabylonischen Archiven, Dresden, 2003

→ In this monography, the author presents 47 unpublished texts which deal with marriage, dowry, testaments and divorce between the reigns of Nabopolassar to Darius I. The women belong to different neo-babylonian families, for example, Basiya, URÙ.DÚ.MANSUM, Egibi, of Babylon, Sippar or Borsippa.


– “The Šangu-Ninurta Archive” AOAT 330, 2005

→ This article deals with a archive of a business and well-to-do Babylonian family between reign of Nebuchadnezzar II to the reign of Xerxes. The author however presents the marriage links between the Šangu-Ninurta, Bel-apla-u¤ur and E¸iru families and draws a useful prosopography of the women of the familiy during 3 generations, in which we can see that most of the goods are transmitted to the next generation only in the female line via dowries.


Keyword list / Liste des mots-clefs

Keywords List / Liste des mots clefs

adoption adoption
brother frère
buying&selling achat&vente
childbirth naissance
children enfants
crisis crise
daughter fille
death mort
demons démons
maids&domestic-dependants domesticité
domestic-occupations activités-domestiques
donation donation
dowry dot
dreams rêves
emar emar
family famille
family-archive archive-familiale
family-hierarchy hiérarchie familiale
female-occupations métiers féminins
food alimentation
harem harem
household maisonnée
iconography iconograpie
inheritence&patrimony héritage&patrimoine
inventory inventaire
jail prison
law-codes codes-de-lois
lawsuit procès
legal-status statut-juridique
lending-debt&credit prêts-créances&dettes
literature littérature
marriage mariage
mediobabylonian médio-babylonian
mother mère
music musique
neobabylonien néo-babylonien
neosumerian néo-sumérien
nun religieuse
nurse nourrice
nuzi nuzi
oldassyrian paléo-assyrien
onomastic onomastique
ownership droits-de-propriété
pledge gage&garantie
priestess prêtresse
prosopography prosopographie
prostitution prostitution
queens&princesses reines&princesses
rituals&worship rites&culte
scribe scribe
seals&sealings sceaux&scellements
sexuality sexualité
silver argent
sister sœur
slave-release libération-d’esclaves
slave&slavery esclave&esclavage
solidarity solidarité
sorcery&magic sorcellerie&magie
testament testament
textile textile
trade commerce
vocabulary vocabulaire
widow&widohood veuve&veuvage
wife épouse
writing écriture


achat&vente buying&selling
activités-domestiques domestic-occupations
adoption adoption
alimentation food
archive-familiale family-archive
argent silver
codes-de-lois law-codes
commerce trade
crise crisis
démons demons
servantes&domesticité domestic-dependants
donation donation
dot dowry
droits-de-propriété ownership
écriture writing
emar emar
enfants children
épouse wife
esclave&esclavage slave&slavery
famille family
fille daughter
frère brother
gage&garantie pledge
harem harem
héritage&patrimoine inheritence&patrimony
hiérarchie-familiale family-hierarchy
iconograpie iconography
inventaire inventory
libération-d’esclave slave-release
littérature literature
maisonnée household
mariage marriage
médio-babylonian mediobabylonian
mère mother
métiers-féminins female-occupations
mort death
musique music
naissance childbirth
néo-babylonien neobabylonien
néo-sumérien neosumerian
nourrice nurse
nuzi nuzi
onomastique onomastic
paléo-assyrien oldassyrian
prêtresse priestess
prêts-créances&dettes lending-debt&credit
prison jail
procès lawsuit
prosopographie prosopography
prostitution prostitution
reines&princesses queens&princesses
religieuse nun
rêves dreams
rites&culte rituals&worship
sceaux&scellements seals&sealings
scribe scribe
sexualité sexuality
sœur sister
solidarité solidarity
sorcellerie&magie sorcery&magic
statut-juridique legal-status
testament testament
textile textile
veuve&veuvage widow&widohood
vocabulaire vocabulary


General Bibliography

Provisional REFEMA General Bibliography

Note : For a comprehensive bibliography on the place and role of women in ancient Near Eastern societies (regarding writings prior to 2001), see :
Asher-Greve, Julia M., “Women and Gender in Ancient Near Eastern Cultures : Bibliography 1885 to 2001 AD”, NIN 3, 2002, p. 33- 114.
See also the general observations of M. Van De Mieroop, “Gender and Mesopotamian History”, in Cuneiform Texts and the Writing of History, London, 1999, pp. 138-160.

 * * *

Abraham, Kathleen

1992  “«The Dowry Clause in Marriage Documents from the First Millenium B.C. »”. In D. C. F. Joannès, ed., La circulation des biens, des personnes et des idées dans le Proche-Orient ancien. Actes de la 38e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Paris, 8-10 juillet 1991). Paris, pp. 311-320.


1993  Studies in the Cuneiform Sources related to Marriage and Matrimonial Property from the First Millenium B.C.E., Bar Ilan University University. Bar Ilan.


2004  Business and politics under the Persian Empire : the financial dealings of Marduk-nāṣir-apli of the House of Egibi (521-487 B.C.E.). Bethesda, MD: CDL Press.


2007  “« An Inheritance Division among Judeans in Babylonia from the Early Persian Period (from the Moussaieff Tablet Collection) »”. In M. Lubetski, ed., New Seals and Inscriptions, Hebrew, Idumean, and Cuneiform. Hebrew Bible Monographs.


2007  “« West Semitics and Judeans Brides in Cuneiform Sources from the 6th century B.C.E. New Evidence from a Marriage Contract from Al-Yahudu ».” AfO Beiheft 51, 198-219

Abrahami, P.

2011  « Masculine and Feminine Personal Determinatives before Women’s Names at Nuzi : A Gender Indicator of Social or Economic Independence ? » [cited. Available from

Adams, Robert Mc.C.

2011  “”Slavery and Freedom in the Third Dynasty of Ur. Implications of the Garšana Archives.””. In D. I. Owen, ed., Garšana Studies (CUSAS 6). CUSAS 6. Bethesda, MD: CDL Press, pp. 1-9.

Adamson, P. B.

1985  “Some Rituals associated with Parturition in Antiquity.” Folklore 96, 176-183.

Albayrak, İ.

1998  “Koloni Çağında Yerli Bir Bayan “Madawada”, 3.”. In, Uluslararası Hititoloji Kongresi Bildirileri. Çorum, pp. 1-14.


2000  “Ein neues altassyrisches Testament aus Kültepe”. In, Archivum Anatolicum 4. pp. 17-27.


2002  “Kültepe’den Değişik Bir Masraf Listesi”. In, Archivum Anatolicum 5. pp. 1-10.


2004  “‘She will live, eat and be anointed together with them’. ušbat aklat u paššat ištišunu.”. In J. G. Dercksen, ed., Assyria and Beyond. Studies Presented to Mogens Trolle Larsen. Leiden, pp. 9-20.


2010  “The Understanding of Inheritance in Ancient Anatolia According to Testaments from Kültepe”. In F. K. Kulakoğlu, S., ed., Anatolia’s Prologue, Kültepe Kanesh Karum, Assyrians in Istanbul. Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality Cultural Publication. Istanbul, pp. 142- 147.

Albenda, Pauline

1983  “Western Asiatic Women in the Iron Age: Their Image Revealed.” BA 46, 82-88.

Archi, Alfonso

1988  “ “Prices, Worker’s Wages and Maintenance at Ebla.”.” AoF 15, 24-29.


1990  ““Imâr au IIIème millénaire d’après les archives d’Ebla””. In, MARI 6. pp. 2 1-38.


1993  ““Un autre document de Tiša-Lim, reine d’Imâr””. In, MARI 7. pp. 34 1-342.


1996  “”Les femmes du roi Irkab-Damu.””. In J.-M. Durand, ed., Amurru 1: Mari, Ébla et les Hourrites dix ans de travaux, 1ère partie. Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations, pp. 10 1- 124.


1998  “”The High Priestess, dam-dingir, at Ebla.””. In M. a. K. Dietrich, I., ed., “Und Mose schrieb dieses Lied auf”: Oswald Loretz zur Vollendung seines 70. Lebebsjahres mit Beiträgen von Freunden, Schülern und Kollegen, AOAT 250. AOAT Münster, pp. 43-53.


2001  “”The Role of Women in the Society of Ebla.””. In S. a. W. R. M. Parpola, ed., Sex and Gender in the Ancient near East. Proceedings of the 47e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale. Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, pp. 1- 10.

Arnaud, D.

1973  “La prostitution sacrée en Mésopotamie, un mythe historiographi-que?” Revue de l’Histoire des Religions 183, 111- 115.


1980  ““Traditions urbains et influences semi-nomades à Emar, à l’âge du Bronze Récent””. In J.-C. Margueron, ed., Le moyen-Euphrate: zone de contacts et d’échanges. Travaux du Centre de Recherche sur le Proche-Orient et la Grèce anticues Leiden, pp. 256-260.

Asher-Greve, Julia

1985  Frauen in Altsumerischer Zeit. Bibliotheca Mesopotamica 18. Undena


1987  “”The Oldest Female Oneiromancer.””. In J.-M. Durand, ed., La Femme Dans Le Proche Orient Antique. Compte Rendu de la XXXIIIe Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Paris, 7- 10 Juillet 1986). Paris: ERC, pp. 27-32.

Assante, J.

1998  “«The kar.kid / ḫarimtu, Prostitute or Single Woman? A Reconsideration of the Evidence».” UF 30, 5-96 (particularly 19-27).

Auberger, J.

1993  “Ctésias et les femmes.” Dialogues d’histoire ancienne 19, 253-272.

Bahrani, Zainab

2001  Women of Babylon : gender and representation in Mesopotamia. London ; New York: Routledge.

Baker, H. D.

2001  “Degrees of Freedom: Slavery in Mid-First Millennium BC Babylonia.” World Archaeology 33, 18-26.

Balkan, K.

1986  “Balkan, K.”. In H. A. B. Hoffner, G. A. , ed., Kaniššuwar: A Tribute to Hans G. Güterbock on his Seventy-Fifth Birthday May 27, 1983. AS. Chicago, pp. 1-11.

Balke, T. E.

2011  “”Die Religiösen ‘Titel’ PA4-PA4 und NI-A-A im Präsargonischen Onomastikon.”.” KASKAL 8, 1- 10.

Barber, Elizabeth W.

1994  Women’s work. New York: Norton.

Batto, B. F.

1974  Studies on Women at Mari. The Johns Hopkins Near Eastern Studies. Baltimore

Bayliss, Miranda

1973  “The Cult of the Dead Kin in Assyria and Babylonia.” Iraq 35, 115- 125.

Bayram, S. & Çeçen, S.

1995  “6 Neue Urkunden über Heirat und Scheidung aus Kaniš”. In, Archivum Anatolicum 1, pp. 1- 12.

Beaulieu, Paul Alain.

1984  “La stèle funéraire de la mère de Nabonide.” Paper presented at the Recueil de travaux et communications de l’association des études du Proche Orient ancien/Collected Papers of the Society for Near Eastern Studies, *INVALID FIELD*.


1989  The Reign of Nabonidus, King of Babylon, 556-539 B.C. . YNER, 10. New Haven: Yale University Press.


1993  “Women in Neo-Babylonian society.” The Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies. Bulletin 26, 7- 14.


1998  “Ba’u-asitu and Kaššaya, Daughters of Nebuchadnezzar II ” Orientalia 67, 173-20 1.

Beld, S. G.

2002  The Queen of Lagash: Ritual Economy in a Sumerian State., University of Michigan University.

Bellotto, N.

2004  “«L’adozione con matrimonio a Nuzi e Emar»”. In, Kaskal Kaskal 1, pp. 129- 137.


2008  ““Adoptions at Emar: An Outline””. In L. D’alfonso, Cohen, Y. and Sürenhagen, D., ed., The City of Emar among the Late Bronze Age Empires: History, Landscape, and Society. Proceedings of the Konstanz Emar Conference, 25-26.04.2006. AOAT. Münster, pp. 179- 194.

Ben Barak, Z.

1980  “Inheritance of daughters in the Ancient Near East.” Journal of Semitic Studies 25, 22-33.


1988  ““The Legal Status of the Daughter as Heir in Nuzi and Emar””. In M. a. L. Heltzer, E., ed., Society and Economy in the Eastern Mediterranean (c. 1500- 1000 B. C.). OLA Leuven pp. 87-97.


1988  “«The Legal Status of the Daughter as Heir in Nuzi and Emar»”. In M. H. e. E. L. (éds.), ed., Society and Economy in the Eastern Mediterranean (c. 1500- 1000 BC). 23. Leuven, pp. 87-97.


1996  ““Mutual Influences in the Ancient Near East: Inheritance as a Case in Point””. In M. Malul, ed., Mutual Influences of People and Cultures in the Ancient Near East. Haifa, pp. 1- 15 (esp. p. 15).


1999  ““‘ke-mišpaṭ hā-ʿīr’ Ēmar. Bezīqā lizḳūjōt habbat””. In Y. Avishur and R. Deutsch, eds., Michael. Historical, Epigraphical and Biblical Studies. In Honor of Prof. Michael Heltzer (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv-Haifa pp. 37*-53*.


2003  Inheritance by Daughters in Israel and the Ancient Near East. A Social, Legal and Ideological Turning Point (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv


2006  “Inheritance by Daughters in Israel and in the Ancient Near East”. In. Haifa, pp. 152- 179.


Bertholet, Florence; Anne Bielman Sanchez; Regula Frei-Stolba (ed.)

2008  Egypte, Grèce, Rome : les différents visages des femmes antiques. Travaux et colloques du séminaire d’épigraphie grecque et latine de l’IASA 2002-2006. . Echo. Collection de l’Institut d’Archéologie et d’Histoire Ancienne de l’Université de Lausanne, vol.7. Berne: Peter Lang.

Bichler, R.

2000  “Herodots Frauenbild und seine Vorstellung über die Sexualsitten der Völker”. In, Geschlechterollen und Frauenbilden in der Perspektive antiker Autoren. Innsbruck, pp. 13-56.

Biga, Maria-Giovanna

1987  “”Femmes de la famille royale d’Ebla.””. In J.-M. Durand, ed., La Femme Dans Le Proche Orient Antique, the 33e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Paris, 7- 10 Juillet 1986). RAI. Paris: ERC, pp. 4 1-47.


1988  “”Frauen in der Wirtschaft von Ebla.””. In H. a. H. Waetzold, H., ed., Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft von Ebla. Akten der Internationalen Tagung, Heidelberg 4-7 November 1986. Heidelberg, pp. 159- 17 1.

Biggs, Robert D.

1996  “A Woman’s Plaint in an Old Assyrian Letter.” WZKM 86, 47-52.

Biggs, Robert D., Jennie Myers, et Martha Tobi Roth.

2008  “Proceedings of the 5 1st Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale held at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, July 18-22, 2005.” In Studies in ancient oriental civilization no 62, 1 online resource (xi, 434 p.). Chicago, Ill.: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

Bleibtreu, E.

1992  “Semiramis und andere Gemahlinnen assyrischer Könige.” Reihe Frauenforschung 18, 57-72.

Böhl, Franz, M. Th.

1939  “Die Tochter des Königs Nabonid”. In, Studies Koschaker. pp. 15 1- 178.

Bonechi, M.

1997  ““Annexe: les dossiers de la reine d’Imâr et de la ville de Halka””. In, MARI 8. pp. 523-535.

Bongenaar, A. C. V. M.

1997  The Neo-babylonian Ebabbar Temple at Sippar: Its Administration and its Prosopography. PIHANS, 80. Leiden: Nederlands Historisch-Archeologish Instituut te Istanbul.

Bottéro, Jean

1965  “La femme dans l’Asie occidentale ancienne. Mésopotamie et Israël”. In P Grimal, ed., Histoire mondiale de la femme I. Paris, pp. 158-223.


1987  “L’amour libre à Babylone et ses désavantages”. In l. r. e. l. d. Mésopotamie. L’écriture, ed., Mésopotamie. L’écriture, la raison et les dieux. Paris: Gallimard, pp. 224-240.

Bottéro, Jean, et alii

1992  Initiation à l’Orient ancien. De Sumer à la Bible. Points Histoire. Paris: Editions du Seuil.

Bottéro, Jean, et André Finet

2001  Everyday life in ancient Mesopotamia. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Briant, Pierre

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2008  ““Remarks on Inheritance and Adoption in the Middle Euphrates during the Late Bronze Age”.” NABU 2008/2, 2-3.


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2009  ““The Marriage Contract AlT 92 (Alalaḫ) in the Light of the Marriage System of Late Bronze Age Syria”.” AoF 36, 97- 109.


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2014 Mujeres y derecho en el Próximo Orient antiguo. La presencia de mujeres en los textos jurídicos cuneiforms del Segundo y primer milenios a. C., Zaragoza

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1982  “Le culte d’Ištar en Mésopotamie du nord à l’époque parthe.” OLP 13, 117- 124.


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1988  “The Brides of Babylon: Herodotus I. 196.” Historia 37, 54-7 1.

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1979  “Problèmes des déesses Tašmetum et Nanaia.” Orient 15, 133- 148.


1982  “The Sacred Marriage Rite in the First Millenium B.C. in Mesopotamia.” Orient 25, 96- 110.


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1988  “Les rituels du mariage divin dans les documents akkadiens ” Acta Sumerologica 10, 95- 128.


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1998  Gender and law in the Hebrew Bible and the ancient Near East. Journal for the study of the Old Testament Supplement series. Sheffield, Eng.: Sheffield Academic Press.

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1998  “Nabonids Herkunft”. In, Studies Römer. pp. 245-26 1.

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2011  “”The Figure of the Worshiper in the Presentation Scene””. In D. I. Owen, ed., Garšana Studies, CUSAS 6 (2011). Bethesda, MD: CDL Press, pp. 227-232.

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1988  “The Brides of Babylon: Herodotus 1. 196.” Historia: Zeitschrift f√ºr Alte Geschichte 37, 54-7 1.

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1991  “”Women and Communication in the Ancient near East.”.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 111, 540-547.

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1983  “«Il simbolo del “femminile“ nell’epopea di Gilgamesh».” Oriens Antiquus 22, 29 1-303.

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2004  “Neo-Assyrian Royal Women and Male Identity: Status as a Social Tool.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 124, 37-57.

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20 10  “On the Names of Some Early Ancient Near Eastern Royal Women and on a Seal Impression from Karum Kanesh”. In Ş. e. Dönmez, ed., Veysel Donbaz’a Sunulan Yazılar DUB.SAR E.DUB.BA.A, Studies Presented in Honour of Veysel Donbaz. Istanbul, pp. 211-2 16.

Michel, C.

1997  “Hommes et femmes prêtent serment à l’époque paléo-assyrienne.”. In S. D.-L. (ed.), ed., Jurer et maudire. Pratiques politiques et usages juridiques du serment dans le Proche-Orient ancien, Méditerranées 10-11, pp. 105- 123.


1997  “Propriétés immobilières dans les tablettes paléo-assyriennes”. In K. R. e. Veenhof, ed., Houses and Households in Ancient Mesopotamia, CRRAI 40. CRRAI, 40. Istanbul, pp. 285-300.


1997  “Les enfants des marchands de Kaniš”. In B. Lion, Michel, C. & Villard, P. (eds.), ed., Enfance et éducation au Proche-Orient ancien, Actes de la table ronde. Ktèma Nanterre, pp. 9 1- 108.


1997  “Une incantation paléo-assyrienne contre Lamaštum.” Or 66, 58-64.


1997  “Un témoignage paléo-assyrien en faveur du port du voile par la femme mariée.” NABU 1997/40.


1997  “Les malheurs de Kunnanīya, femme de marchand”. In, Emin Bilgiç anı kitabı, ArAn 3. ArAn


1997  “À table avec les marchands paléo-assyriens”. In H. H. Waetzoldt, H.  (eds.), ed., Assyrien im Wandel der Zeiten, CRRAI 39, HSAO 6. HSAO. Heidelberg, pp. 95-113.


1997  “Les enfants des marchands de Kaniš”. In B. Lion, Michel,  C. & Villard, P. (ed.), ed., Enfance et éducation au Proche-Orient ancien, Actes de la table ronde, Nanterre, Décembre 1997. Ktèma pp. 9 1- 108.


2000  ““À propos d’un testament paléo-assyrien: une femme de marchand ‘père et mère’ des capitaux”.” RA 94, 1- 10.


2001  Correspondance des marchands de Kaniš au début du IIe  millénaire av. J.-C. Littératures du Proche-Orient ancien n˚ 19. Paris: Editions du Cerf.


2003  ““Les femmes et les dettes: problèmes de responsabilité dans la Mésopotamie du IIe millénaire avant Jésus-Christ”.” Méditerranées 34/35, 13-36.


2003  Old Assyrian Bibliography of Cuneiform Texts, Bullae, Seals and the Results of the Excavations at Aššur, Kültepe/Kaniš, Acemhöyük, Alişar and Boğazköy. OAAS, 1. Leiden


2004  “Deux incantations paléo-assyriennes”. In J. G. e. Dercksen, ed., Assyria and Beyond. Studies Presented to Mogens Trolle Larsen. PIHANS C. Leiden, pp. 395-420.


2006  “Bigamie chez les Assyriens du début du IIe millénaire.” Revue Historique de Droit Français et Etranger 84, 155- 176.


2006  “Femmes et production textile à Aššur au début du IIe millénaire avant J.-C.”. In A. Averbouh, Brun, P.  et alii (eds.), ed., Spécialisation des tâches et sociétés, Techniques & culture 46. pp. 28 1-297.


2006  “Old Assyrian Bibliography 1. (February 2003 – July 2006).” AfO 5 1, 436-449.


2008  “‘Tu aimes trop l’argent et méprises ta vie’. Le commerce lucratif des Assyriens en Anatolie centrale.”. In, La richessa nel Vicino Oriente Antico, Atti del Convegno internazionale Milano 20 gennaio 2007. Collana “Origini” Milano: Centro Studi del Vicino Oriente, pp. 37-62.


2008  “Femmes de marchands assyriens.” Pour la Science 370 – août, 30-34.


2008  “Les Assyriens et leurs femmes anatoliennes”. In J. G. e. Dercksen, ed., Anatolia and the Jazira during the Old Assyrian Period, PIHANS 111, OAAS 3.


2008  “Femmes au foyer et femmes en voyage : le cas des épouses des marchands assyriens au début du IIe millénaire av. J.-C.”. In R. T. Rogers, F. (eds.), ed., Voyageuses, le genre du voyage, voyage et genre Clio, Histoire femmes et sociétés 28. pp. 17-38.


2009  “Femmes et ancêtres : le cas des femmes des marchands d’Aššur.”. In F. Briquel-Chatonnet, Fares, S., Lion, B.  & Michel, C. , ed., Femmes, cultures et sociétés dans les civilisations méditerranéennes et proches-orientales de l’Antiquité. Topoi, Suppl., pp. 27-39.


2009  “Les filles de marchands consacrées.”. In F. Briquel-Chatonnet, Fares, S., Lion, B. & Michel, C. , ed., Femmes, culture et société dans les civilisations méditerranéennes et proches-orientales de l’Antiquité. Topoi, Suppl. , pp. 145- 163.


2009  “Les femmes et l’écrit dans les archives paléo-assyriennes (XIXe s. av. J.-C.)”. In F. Briquel-Chatonnet, Fares, S., Lion, B. & Michel, C. , ed., Femmes, culture et société dans les civilisations méditerranéennes et proches-orientales de l’Antiquité. Topoi, Suppl. , pp. 253-272.


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20 10  “Writing, counting and scribal Education in Aššur and Kaniš”. In F. K. Kulakoğlu, S.  , ed., Anatolia’s Prologue Kültepe Kanesh Karum. Assyrians in Istanbul. Istanbul, pp. 82-93.


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